Located 550 km from Mexico City, is one of the 570 municipalities in the state of Oaxaca in Mexico is divided. It is the most populous state and home to its capital city of Oaxaca.
This is a Mexican city, capital of Oaxaca state and head of the homonymous municipality. It is located in the Central Valley, it is the largest and most populous city of Oaxaca and its economic and cultural center.
Early settlers called it Huaxyacac and was founded in 1486 by Aztec warriors Ahuitzotl, Emperor of Mexico; who ordered to put on the banks of Atoyac to monitor the conduct of Cosijoeza King of Zaachila, which cleared a part of the forest of guaje that existed in this place and built their homes.
In 1520 the resumption of war between Zapotec and Mixtec for territory and power, ended with the arrival of the Spaniards who called Guajaca to find her next to a forest of guajes.
Francisco Orozco arrives in Oaxaca in December 1521, after the fall of Tenochtitlan, was sent by Hernán Cortés (who ordered him to put the name of Segura de la Frontera) since Moctezuma had said that gold came from this region. Among the companions came the clergyman Juan Diaz who officiated the first mass under a large tree that stood on the banks of Atoyac River and where today the Temple of San Juan de Dios is located.
This place called Tepeaca by the first Spaniards who resided there, receives formal authorization for Villa in 1526. Then he was recognized as the Villa of the New Antequera in 1528, because the Magistrate Real Nuno de Guzman was Antequera Spain.
In 1532 he received the title of "very noble and loyal city", calling "Antequera" by King Charles V of Spain, through royal decree signed on April 25 in Medina del Campo, Spain.
This name was replaced in 1821 by "Oaxaca", a word derived from the Nahuatl language Huaxyacac which means "In the nose of the huajes".
In 1872, after the death of the "Benemerito de las Americas" Benito Juarez, received the name which currently holds "Oaxaca de Juarez".
The discovery of the colonial city of Oaxaca, came from the discovery of Monte Alban, one of the most important archaeological treasures of Mexico.
Today, next to the state of Oaxaca, it is a must visit its capital, a city full of color, originality and genuine religious sentiment.
Oaxaca is one of those places that remain in the minds and hearts of those who visit. The memory of having walked its streets, squares and markets, accompanied by rhythmic music, leave us with a feeling of wanting to return son.
It is located in the coordinates 17o04 'north latitude and 96o43' west longitude at an altitude of 1,550 meters in the central part of the state. It limits the north with San Pablo Etla; south to San Antonio de la Cal and Santa Cruz Xoxocotlan; east with San Andres Huayapam, San Agustin Yatareni and Santa Lucia del Camino; west with Santa María Atzompa and San Jacinto Amilpas.
According to the Köppen climate classification, Oaxaca has a subtropical climate mix between a highland climate and mountain climate. The annual average temperature is 22 ° C. The hottest months are April and May, while the coldest months are December, January and February. Oaxaca is at a height of 1550 meters above sea level, which means there will always be a large temperature difference between day and night. The climate is pleasant, with temperatures ranging between 18 ° C in the coldest months and 24 ° C in the hottest months. The only records of snowfall in the city date from 1957 and 1881.
Oaxacan countryside agriculture stands out in the production of mezcal agave, because Oaxaca and has the designation of origin of alcoholic drink mezcal, obtained from the agave plant; also it excels in the production of black beans and mango with the top nationally. It is also a leading provider of green serrano chile, sour lemon, sugar cane, peanuts, melon and corn grain. In capture fisheries it is the main supplier of red snapper in the country and also a major supplier of dogfish. Currently the mining industry gets sulfur.
In the municipality is traditional on holidays consume the black, red, yellow, green, chichilo and coloradito mole. The beef, tortillas and white or gold corn chips, tlayuda with asiento, broth cat, entomatado, corn quesadilla, grenache, tamales wrapped in banana leaves and roasted grasshoppers.
Chinese costume representative of Oaxacan town center, has strong satin skirt and bright colors, wide flight, with applications, call cejon white blouse, made of white poplin and petticoat to add volume to the skirt, scarf silk brightly colored and shawl, with street shoes. They complement the attire costume jewelry of gold, and on her head a basket of flowers with whimsical figures. This suit is only used in festivals.
Among the main festivities held during the year is celebrated the Guelaguetza, the last two Mondays of July in the Guelaguetza auditorium in the Fortin Hill.
Calendas, exhibitions, competitions, visits to cemeteries, inns, dancing, dining, craft and cultural shows are held.
The Guelaguetza is a wealth of revealing the colorful expressions of cultural diversity that characterizes all Mexico and particularly the state of Oaxaca.