Welcome to "The City Constituent"
Queretaro origin dates back to 1536. Its capital is the city of Santiago de Queretaro that is characterized by exciting national historical facts, colonial-style architecture and nature.
This is an excellent city to vacation in the company of family as it provides an excellent environment for relaxation and the opportunity to learn about its museums, magical towns, hosting services, night clubs, restaurants and tourist transport.
The official name of the state is " Estado Libre y Soberano de Querétaro de Arteaga ". The city received the title of Noble and Loyal City of Santiago de Querétaro in 1656, but changed to simply Queretaro after the independence. Later returned to Santiago de Queretaro in 1996, when he was named a World Heritage Site. The end of "Arteaga" is in the name of the state in 1867 in honor of general Jose Maria Arteaga Magallanes Cayetano.
Agricultural settlements dating from around 500 BC have been found in areas of the San Juan River and Huimilpan during the era of Teotihuacan. After the fall of the city, the Queretaro had its highest rate of development of agriculture and the social structure. The area was inhabited from the beginning by a number of ethnic groups, including the Otomi, Toltec, Chichimeca, Purepecha and Mexica.
When the Spanish conquered the Aztec empire in the sixteenth century, the largest indigenous group in the state was the Otomi, many of who lived more or less under the Purepecha domain. This population would increase with Otomi refugees from Aztec lands fleeing from the Spanish.
During the rest of the XVI century, the Spanish city of Queretaro forms the northern extension of the lands known to the Spanish conquerors. The Spanish power in the area initially shared with local indigenous leaders well into the seventeenth century in many areas. However, the indigenous power faded with time.
In 1740 José de Escondón was sent to militarily subdue the area, culminating in the 1748 Battle of Crescent, where the Chichimecas were defeated decisively. This paved the way for the establishment of five major missions in the heart of the Sierra Gorda of Queretaro, attributed to Junipero Serra, which are now world heritage. Although the area was pacified the mid-eighteenth century, a neighborhood called "Mayor" was established in San Jose de Escandon, today in the municipality of Pinal de Amoles, which governs what is now the northern half of the state.
Queretaro peaked in the colonial era during the eighteenth century due to its strategic position in the northern territories and its livestock. There was also a significant textile industry for local and regional markets. Queretaro was the first major producer of wool fabrics in the New Spain. At the end of the century, the Royal Tabacco Factory was established, the second most important of its kind in the New Spain. There was also some production of minerals, especially silver in an area called The Doctor.
Queretaro was strategic in the development of events just before the start of the War of Independence of Mexico. It was the site of the conspiracy between Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla, Ignacio Allende, Josefa Ortiz de Dominguez and her husband Miguel Dominguez Corregidor of Queretaro. The plot was discovered when another conspirator, Epigmenio González, was caught with an arsenal of weapons for war. Ortiz de Dominguez sent a message to Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla in Dolores, Guanajuato that the plot was discovered. At that point, Hidalgo decided to start the revolt against colonial rule in the September 15, rather than in December as planned. Gonzalez was jailed in the Philippines from 1810-1838 for his role.
After the war, Querétaro became a state with the Constitution of 1824. However, the city and state would lose the economic and cultural importance it had during the colonial period. The political instability of the nineteenth century had its effect on trade, which made the area's economy suffered.
The Constitution of 1857 was published in the city. A coalition of states including Querétaro, Jalisco, Aguascalientes, Zacatecas, Guanajuato and Michoacan formed to defend the Constitution against the Plan of Tacubaya.
Before the end of the century, modern infrastructure like electricity, telegraph, industry, public education and the phones began to appear. However, at the same time, strikes and other movements against the Diaz regime had begun in the state and in other parts of the country. The largest strike in the state was against Hercules factory in 1909. At the beginning of the Mexican Revolution, there were riots in Jalpan and Cadereyta, along with protests in the capital. Governor Gonzalez de Cosio resigned in 1911, replaced by Joaquin F. Chicarro, which was allied with Victoriano Huerta and authoritarian. In 1916 and 1917, the federal government of Venustiano Carranza had to leave the city of Mexico, moving the capital to Queretaro.
Between 1940 and 1960, economic progress grew with increasing industrial infrastructure and modernization. Much of the industrial growth from then until now can be seen in the various industrial parks located north of the capital. In the next thirty years, the city grew more than four times its previous size. However, the state retains the historic center of the city, declared a World Heritage Site in 1996. The official name of the city, which had simply changed to "Querétaro”, was restored for "Santiago de Querétaro" the same year.
The State of Querétaro occupies the 27th place in Mexico with an area of 11,270 km2, which represents 6% of the land area, has a rugged topography ranging from 400 to 3,260 meters above the sea, so its natural wealth is enormous. Bordered on the north by the state of San Luis Potosi, the east with the state of Hidalgo, to the south with the states of Mexico and Michoacan and west with the state of Guanajuato.
Queretaro annual temperature is 18 ° C in a tempered semi-dry climate. The hottest months are May and June with temperatures of 36 ° C and the coldest are December and January with minimum temperatures of -3 ° C and average annual rainfall is 555 mm.
The agricultural sector has fallen over the years due to the expansion of industry and services sectors that caused significant reductions in livestock and agriculture locating tourism into the main economic activity. Due to its many national and cultural historical events, Queretaro was names World Cultural Heritage Site by UNESCO.
Queretaro's cuisine is based on typical food such as corn, chili, fruit and cacti. Some dishes not to miss if you visit this state are mentioned:
Migajas Gorditas: Thick tortillas filled dough fried pork.
Cracked corn and spicy cheese enchilada gorditas: Thick corn tortilla with fresh cheese made with red sauce.
Enchiladas Queretanas: Corn tortilla rolled stuffed with chicken, beef, fish or potatoes, covered with a red sauce, vegetables and cheese.
Snow ice cream: Made with cinnamon, vanilla, raisins and dried fruit.
Queretana custard: Made snow with walnut caramel.
Guajolotes: Spicy and fried roll stuffed with meat, vegetables, cream and cheese.
Baked Sweet Potato: Accompanied with sugar cane molasses.
Fritters: Made of flour, sugar, shortening soaked in sauce served with guava brown sugar and cinnamon.
Lamb barbecue: It is cooked with maguey leaves hole.
Caramel: Traditional Mexican candy made with whole milk and sugar.
Quiote: Maguey stalk, which is cooked with brown sugar.
Gruel Tile: Made with sunflower seeds.
Tamales: There are two types: cheese with chili and fresh.
Penca: Is roast maguey stalk regularly filled with meat, sausage and cheese.
Roasted goat: Is goat meat seasoned with chili, traditionally cooked in a hole in the ground for six hours.
The Paseo del Buey
This festival is held annually since 270 years ago to honor the Virgin of Pueblito. People gather to parade a cow decorated with flowers and corn throughout the city. At night the animal is sacrificed as indicated by tradition for treason and several dishes prepared with its meat to feed its devotees, also music and dancing is part of this celebration.
Procession of Silence
The Procession of Silence in Queretaro is a tradition celebrated since more than thirty years in the city. This practice has an impressive list of meanings of the predominant religion in our country, so perhaps it may seem complex, but in fact this ritual will soon captivate you in a place full of mystery and religious atmosphere. Enjoy this procession in the Historic Center of Queretaro, and admire the religious traditions of participants every Easter Friday.
Equinox in Bernal
It is celebrated on March 21 in the village of Peña de Bernal where they celebrate the spring equinox welcoming visitors with a festival full of cultural events, concerts, pre-Hispanic rituals where white is worn to witness the rock that receives the first rays of sun that gives us a perfect spring day and gastronomic samples.
Fiestas de la Cruz
This tradition is held from 12 to 15 September with a meeting of “cocheros” that dance chichimecas until reaching the temple of the Cross. That night is known as the Vigil where its devotees dance more than 10 hours taking turns ending its celebration with a Mass in honor of the Holy Cross.
Tequisquiapan was founded in 1551 and its name means "place of the river tequesquite". It is located about 40 minutes from the city of Queretaro, this magical town is an excellent choice for a nice weekend and still preserved in its squares and houses a projection of the colonial era. Here you can take a tour of the parish of Santa Maria Assunta and the Plaza de Miguel Hidalgo; also it allows you to spend some time in the pools with your family.
Jalpan de Sierra
Jalpan is located in the Sierra Gorda of Queretaro, its name means "place on sand". In this village there are five temples distributed along the mountain, one of baroque construction built by missionary Fray Junipero Serra. Its stone facade and its floral decorations that highlight the sculptures of saints and other colonial buildings characterize it. You can also visit the Historical Museum of the Sierra Gorda in which collections of photographs, archaeological pieces and other objects that testify to the natural and historical richness of the place.
Be sure not to forget to take home a little reminder from the craft shops working palm, pine, embroidery, wood and ceramics.
This town is known for its colonial architecture, founded in the seventeenth century. Its historic center has buildings with neoclassical and baroque style, like the Parish of St. Peter and St. Paul Parish that conserve antique oil paintings.
Here you can take long walks to know its main square, its temples, the stone carvings, the source of Pinito, the neighborhood of the fountains where you´ll find Quinta Fernando Schmoll, the Botanical Garden dedicated to preserving and reserve plant diversity.
Peña de Bernal
The origin of this magical town dates from 1642. Its full name is San Sebastian Bernal of Arabic origin meaning rock, still retains architectural styles of singular beauty. Visitors can visit the chapel of Animas, the Chapel of the Cross and the Temple of San Sebastian Martyr.
Remember to take home a little reminder from the charming craft shops where spectacular and laborious tablecloths are displayed as well as blankets made on looms since antiquity.
Places of interest
This place can find a variety of handicrafts produced in villages and communities in the state particularly Tequisquiapan, some of which include: baskets, home decorations, tortilla, hats, embroidered fabrics, pieces of jewelry, wood, wrought iron among many others.
Opened on September 22, 1988 and located in the historic center of Queretaro. The museum used to de a convent called San Agustin. Today is described by many authors as "the building that sings" and is divided into four collections Mannerism, European Art Academy of San Carlos and Baroque.
It is one of the most important buildings whose 74 arches measure a length of 1,280 meters. It was built in order to supply water to the city although legend tells of Don Juan Antonio Urrutia y Arana who funded it out of love to a Clare nun who asked for it.
It is a classic bar in town a place to go if you're looking to spend some quality time with your partner or friends. Its entrance has high stools and four high tables besides the typical cantina style bar to give a classic touch. In the back there are chairs of different styles and size for a more intimate atmosphere.
This former industrial building is a place for artists and creative. The space has different locations of design, architecture, technology that promote contemporary art and artistic experimentation. During your visit you will have the opportunity to spend some time getting to know and enjoy what this place offers.