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DISCOVER VERACRUZ


Veracruz

Welcome to the “Puerto Jarocho”





Veracruz is the largest and most important municipality in the state of Veracruz, and the central city that gives name to the urban area known as Metropolitan Area of Veracruz. Recognized for having the most important commercial seaport of Mexico.

Present day, the city of Veracruz continues to grow and offer visitors the highest quality in lodging, food, entertainment and the infrastructure, facilities and services required for the organization of fairs, exhibitions and events. Place the most important carnival of Mexico, Carnival of Veracruz.


History




La Villa Rica de la Vera Cruz was founded by the Spanish conquistador Hernán Cortés, Francisco de Montejo and Alonso Hernandez de Portocarrero on April 22, 1519 on the beaches that were facing the islet of San Juan de Ulua. Villa Rica de la Vera Cruz became the first town hall of continental America and the first city founded by Europeans in Latin Continental. Since 1607 the Port of Veracruz acquired the title of city, confirmed in 1640 by King Felipe III and has the title as one of the oldest cities in Mexico.

In the late sixteenth century, the Spaniards had built roads to link with other cities like Veracruz Córdoba, Orizaba, Puebla, Xalapa and Perote. Its gold and silver were the main export products. This made problems with pirates, provoking the construction of Fort San Juan de Ulua on the island, where Grijalva had landed in the sixteenth century. 

Major public buildings were built in the early seventeenth century like the town hall, the monastery of Our Lady of Mercy and the Hospital of Our Lady of Loreto. In 1640, the Armada de Barlovento was stationed here for additional defense against pirates. Throughout the rest of the colonial era its large class of wealthy merchants made it into the most important port of the New Spain even more important than Mexico City. Pirates Van Hoorn, Laurens de Graaf and Michel de Grammont attacked Vera Cruz in 1683.

The nineteenth century was marked by armed conflict. During the War of Independence of Mexico, Spain placed troops to keep the sea routes between Mexico City and Spain opened. In 1816, Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna sent royalist troops to fight the insurgency. In 1820, insurgents took the city, despite attempts of Santa Anna to stop them. The last viceroy of New Spain, Juan O'Donojú arrived here in 1821, where the Treaty of Cordoba with Iturbide at Fort San Juan de Ulua was signed. In 1823, Spanish troops remaining at Fort San Juan de Ulua mounted a successful defense winning its first title of "Heroic City". During the Pastry War in 1837, the city mounted another  defense against a French attack, and won his second title of "Heroic City".

In 1847 during the Mexico-American War, the North American forces invaded the city. It was defended by General Juan Jose Morales and Juan de Landeros, but were forced to surrender a few days. The government of Mexico recognized Veracruz with a third title of "Heroic City".

Conflicts and damaged trade relations with Europe took their toll in the port of Veracruz. In 1902, port facilities had deteriorated, and were considered one of the most dangerous in the US coast. President Porfirio Diaz contracted foreign companies to modernize port infrastructure.

In 1914, during the Mexican Revolution (1910-1920), the US  attacked and occupied the port in an effort to try to preserve the trade. The city won its fourth title of "Heroic City".

In 1970, a federal commission was established to design a new system of administration of Mexico ports. The Legislature passed laws authorizing the federal government to take control of important ports such as Veracruz. The federal government modernized the port, adopting the automated loading and unloading of boats. This resulted in a reduction of 80% of the jobs of the port and resistance of work through strikes.

 

Weather



The annual average temperature in Veracruz is 25 ° C and receives 1500 mm annually of rainfall. During the months of September to February a phenomenon called "north" are present, which are gusts of wind from the north and reaching speeds from about 50 to 130 kilometers per hour.

Sometimes the temperature drops several degrees, but its duration is short; one to three days.

 

Location

 


It is located in the center of the state. Bordered on the north by the municipality of La Antigua and the Gulf of Mexico; south with the municipalities of Medellin and Boca del Rio; on the east by the Gulf of Mexico and west by the municipalities of Manlius and Paso de Ovejas.

 

Economy




Its main economic and highest source of income is trade, since it is a commercial port, followed by tourism is also very important because in this city one of the most important carnivals in Mexico takes place, the carnival of Veracruz. Other common activities are the automotive, steelwork and fishing.

 

Gastronomy



The cuisine of Veracruz is specially based on seafood, with the Fish Veracruz being its best representative. Some of the most popular dishes of the city that cannot leave without tasting while visiting are:

Veracruzana Fish: Fish cooked in a sauce of peppers, onions, tomatoes and aromatic herbs.

Coffee with milk: Made with regional coffee accompanied with fresh milk.

The zacahuil: Tamal prepared pork and wrapped in banana leaf.

Rice a la Tumbada: Rice soup accompanied by seafood.

Chilpachole: Tomato broth along with seafood such as shrimp and crab.

Back to Life: Cocktail mixed seafood such as shrimp, octopus, squid and oysters.

 

Traditional costumes



The costume of Veracruz is highlighted by the white predominate, either in the case of male and female clothing, better known as "Jarocho suit." 

Woman:
Women wear a wide skirt and white wave decorated with lace and embroidered blouse of the same color, sleeveless overalls or apron which is usually in black velvet and decorated with themes of flowers, striking silk shawl, which is usually yellow or white tulle and cotton blanket embroidered with great beauty. Accompanied accessory: a fan decorated with lace, hand bracelets and gold chains, and a shawl tangled arms.

Men:
Dresses a Jarocho costume, consisting of white trousers and white shirt, shoes of the same color, straw hat and red scarf at the neck, which is fitted with a golden ring.

 

Traditional Holidays




Carnival

Carnival is the most important in the city of Veracruz party, the event begins with the "burning of the bad mood", which is represented in statue. A number of kings and queens are crowned including categories for children, but the most important is the Ugly King and Queen of the Carnival. In the span of the five days, six parades take place along the Boulevard. Floats followed by students of different schools of salsa, mambo, merengue, etc. participated in the festivities. All costumes are handmade.
 

Day of the Dead

Held from October 31 to November 2. In Papantla, tables decorated with flowers, vegetables and other decorations are placed on the roofs. In Tantoyuca the day of the day is celebrated with costumes and music, similar to Carnival.

Christian celebration of Candlemas

This celebration is especially important in the coast, especially in Tlacotalpan. In its festival includes dances and typical corn based food.

 


Places of interest

 

Cathedral

It is dedicated to Our Lady of the Assumption located in the Zocalo, its construction began in the seventeenth century and ended in 1731. It was modified in the 19th century, but it was not designated as a cathedral until 1963. The building has five bodies, with an octagonal dome covered with tiles of Puebla. The main facade is neoclassical with two levels and a crest. The interior is simple, with crystal chandeliers.




 The Zapotal

It was discovered in 1971, it is an archaeological site in a region known Mixtequlla known for their clay figures with smiling faces, part of a very wide range of offerings in honor of the god of death Mictlantecuhtli.





 
Cempoala

It is an archaeological site located on the coast between modern settlements of Antigua and Cardel city. In the center of the site there is a large plaza surrounded by temples and the palace of the Totonac chief. Besides having a small museum.





Castle Teayo

It is a pyramid, whose original name was Zapotitlán. It lies on the border between totonacas and Huasctec and was abandoned in the nineteenth century.






El Tajin

Its name comes from the Totonac language and means "thunder", but nobody knows what was the real name of this city. It is not known if the totonaca built it since they dominated the region for centuries. The place was site of a large number of Mesoamerican ball games; one with is detailed in reliefs showing the beheading of a ball player and its role in the afterlife.


 

The Museum of Anthropology

This museum was built from 1959 and contains the second largest collection of Mesoamerican artifacts in the country. It is divided by topics into several rooms and galleries, focusing on the Olmec and Totonac cultures.





The Museum of Science and Technology

It is located in Xalapa, it contains more than 400 exhibits in eight rooms: life, ecology, space, transport, science, energy, water and earth.