Tripper Travel Guide

DISCOVER LIMA


Lima Lima


Lima is the capital of the Republic of Peru city. It is located in the central coast, on the Pacific Ocean, forming an extensive and populous urban area known as Lima, flanked by the coastal and desert extended over the valleys of the Chillon, Rimac and Lurin. According to the 2007 census Peru, Lima had over 7.6 million inhabitants, while its urban agglomeration had over 8.5 million inhabitants, 30% of the Peruvian population, figures that make the city most populous.

The January 18, 1535, the Spanish foundation was made with the name of the City of Kings in the agricultural region known by the natives as limaq, name it acquired over time. It was the capital of the Viceroyalty of Peru and the largest and most important city in South America during the Spanish regime. After independence it became the capital of the Republic.

Today he is regarded as the political, cultural, financial and commercial center of the country. Internationally, it is the third most populous metropolitan area in Latin America, the city also ranks fifth among the most populated cities in Latin America and is one of the thirty most populous urban agglomerations in the world.

Jurisdictionally, the metropolis spreads mainly within the province of Lima and a smaller portion to the west, within the constitutional province of Callao, where the seaport and Jorge Chavez International Airport is located. Both provinces have regional autonomy since 2002.

History


 

Although the history of the city of Lima began with his Spanish foundation in 1535, the territory formed by the valleys of the Rimac, Chillon and Lurin rivers was occupied by pre-Inca settlements, which were grouped under the lordship of Ichma. The Lima Maranga culture and culture were those established and forged an identity in these territories. During those times the sanctuaries of Lati (current Puruchuco) and Pachacamac were constructed.

These cultures were conquered by the Wari Empire during the height of its imperial expansion. It is during this time that the ceremonial center was built Cajamarquilla. Given the declining importance Wari, local cultures become independent again, emphasizing the Chancay culture. Later, in the fifteenth century, these territories were incorporated into the Inca Empire. From this period we can find many huacas throughout the city, some of which are under investigation.

The most important or known are those of Huallamarca Pucllana and Mateo Salado, all located in the middle of Lima districts with a high urban growth, which are surrounded by business and residential buildings; however, that does not hinder their perfect condition. Just outside the city are the ruins of Pachacamac, an important religious center built by the Lima culture 3000 years ago and was used even until the time the Spanish conquistadors arrived.

In 1532, the Spaniards and their Indian allies (of ethnic groups submitted by the Incas) under the command of Francisco Pizarro took Atahualpa prisoner in the city of Cajamarca. Although a ransom was paid, he was sentenced to death for political and strategic reasons. After several battles, the Spaniards conquered the empire. The Spanish crown Francisco Pizarro appointed governor of the lands he had conquered. Pizarro decided to found the capital in the Rimac River valley, after the failed attempt to establish it in Jauja.

He considered that Lima was strategically located next to a favorable coast for the construction of a port but away from it prudently to prevent attacks by pirates and foreign powers, fertile land and a convenient cooler weather. Thus, January 18, 1535 Lima was founded under the name of City of Kings, called this way in honor of Epiphany, on territories that had been the chief Taulichusco. The explanation for this name is because "for the same dates January Spaniards were looking for the place for the foundation site of the new town, not far from the sanctuary of Pachacamac, near the Rimac River.

However, as had happened with the region, initially called New Castilla and then Peru, the City of Kings soon lost its name in favor of Lima. " Pizarro, in collaboration with Nicolas de Ribera, Francisco Aguero and Diego Quintero personally traced the Plaza de Armas and the rest of the grid of the city, building the Viceregal Palace (now transformed into the Palace of Government of Peru, which there retains the traditional name of House of Pizarro) and the Cathedral, Pizarro put the first stone with his own hands. In August 1536, the flourishing city was besieged by the troops of Manco Capac II, but the Spaniards and their Indian allies managed to defeat them. In the following years Lima won prestige to be designated capital of the Viceroyalty of Peru and home to a Royal Court in 1543.

Over the next century, it prospered as the center of an extensive trade network which integrated the Viceroyalty in America, Europe and Asia. But the city was not free from hazards; violent earthquakes destroyed much of it between 1586 and 1687, which will raise a great display of constructive activity. It is then displayed aqueducts, embankments and retaining walls to the swollen rivers, the bridge over the Rimac is completed, the Cathedral is built (finished in 1622) and numerous hospitals, convents and monasteries are built. Then we can see that the city is built around their neighborhoods. Another threat was the presence of pirates and privateers in the Pacific Ocean, which prompted the construction of the walls of Lima between 1684 and 1687.

Proclaimed the independence of Peru in 1821 by General San Martin, Lima became the capital of the Republic of Peru brand. So, it was the seat of government and home Liberator also the first Constituent Congress that had the country. The first years of Peruvian republican history were characterized by constant conflict between warlords, who aimed to govern the country and which tried to take the seat of government.

Thus, Lima suffered several sieges and armed clashes in the streets. From a planning point of view, the constant growth experienced by the city gave rise to a phenomenon of modernization. In 1862 began the process of change in urban lanomenclatura city and in 1868 was given, by order of President Jose Balta, the demolition of the walls that surrounded prepared, leading to the first major avenues.

Because of the Pacific War, between 1881 and 1883 Lima was occupied by Chilean forces; after the withdrawal of the Chilean army, a process of reconstruction, which was limited due to clashes between Andres Avelino Caceres and Nicolas de Pierola began. In the late nineteenth century, with Piérola taking power and the beginning of what was called the Aristocratic Republic, he began his real and intense reconstruction lasted until the renovations that Augusto Leguia made in preparation for the centenary of independence in 1921 . In the early twentieth century building streets to serve as a matrix for the development of ciudad.51 the avenues Paseo de la República, Leguia (today called Arequipa), Brazil and landscape Salaverry heading tended to be started the south and the avenues Colonial Venezuela and westward joining the port of Callao.

In the 1930s the great constructions with the remodeling of the Government Palace and the City Hall began. These buildings had their peak in the 1950s, during the government of Manuel A. Odria when the great buildings of the Ministry of Economy and the Ministry of Education (current headquarters building Alzamora Valdez Superior Court of Lima) were built, the Ministry of Health, Ministry of Labour and the Workers Hospital Insurance and Employee well as the National Stadium and several large housing units.

Also in those years he was begun a phenomenon that changed the configuration of the city, which was the massive immigration of people inside the country producing the exponential growth of the capital's population and the consequent urban expansion. The new populations were settled in around the center which were used as agricultural land area. They were populated the present districts of Lince, La Victoria to the south; Scrub and Pueblo Libre west; El Agustino, Ate and San Juan de Lurigancho to the east and San Martin de Porres and Commas north.

As emblematic point of this expansion, in 1973 the self-governing community of Villa El Salvador (present district of Villa El Salvador) located 30 km south of the city center and currently integrated into the metropolitan area was created. In the 1980s, terrorist violence added to the sprawl of the city increased as people arriving IDPs. The historic center of the city suffered an increasing deterioration and many areas of the city constantly lacked basic services.

 

Location

 

Lima is located in the coastal desert of Peru, at the foot of the western slope of the Central Andes of Peru. Although it was initially founded on the Rimac River valley, now it extends over vast desert areas and even on other valleys. While the parade is located at an altitude of 161 meters, the Lurigancho-Chosica reaches 950 meters.

Runs along the coast from km 50 of the Panamericana Norte, at the height of Ancon district on the border with the province of Huaral until Pucusana district at the height of km 70 of the Panamericana Sur, on the border of the province Canete. What makes an area of just over 130 km of coastline and beach. To the east it extends to about 50 km of the main highway in the district of Lurigancho-Chosica, bordering the province of Huarochiri.

 

Weather

 

The climate of the city is especially particularly given their situation. It combines an almost total lack of rainfall, with a high level of humidity and persistent cloud cover. So, it impresses with its strange features despite being located in a tropical area 12 degrees south latitude and almost sea level. Peru's central coast, shows a series of atypical microclimates due to the influential and cold Humboldt current that comes from the Antarctica, the proximity of the mountain range and its geographical location, giving Lima a subtropical, cool, desert and humid climate time.

You can say, it has a warm tropical climate without excessive extreme cold or heat required to have heating at home, except for a few winters. The annual average temperature is 18.5 at 19 ° C, with an annual summer maximum of about 29 ° C. Summer, from December to April, with temperatures ranging between 29-30 ° C during the day and 21-22 ° C at night. Only when El Niño occurs, the temperature in the summer season can exceed 31 ° C. The winters are from June to mid-September, with temperatures ranging between 19 and 12 ° C with 8.8 ° C lower temperature the historically proven. The spring and autumn (September, October and May) have mild temperatures ranging between 23 and 17 ° C.

Furthermore, the relative humidity is very high (up to 100%), producing persistent fog from June to December to input summer when clouds are lower. It's sunny, hot and humid in summer (December-April), cloudy and warm in winter (June to September). The rain is almost nil. The annual average is 7 mm being the fewest in a metropolitan area in the world. A shower in Lima can be seen as a strange phenomenon for most of the population.

 

Economy


 

The Peruvian capital is the main industrial and financial center. It is one of the most important financial centers of Latin America. The main economic sectors that have a high activity are manufacturing, trade, services and tourism. Lima is responsible for over two-thirds of Peru's industrial production and most of its tertiary sector.

Various sites of national and transnational corporations many of which are located in modern buildings built in different sectors, especially in the district of San Isidro has become in recent decades in the financial center of the city they can be seen in the city. The metropolitan area, with about seven thousand factories, is also the center of industrial development in the country, thanks to the quantity and quality of available manpower and infrastructure of roads and inner city motorways.

The most important industries are textiles, food, chemical derivatives, fish, leather and oil, which are processed and manufactured in the same city. Lima has the largest export industry in South America and is a regional center for industry operating load. Industrialization began to take hold between 1930 and 1950, through import substitution policies, in 1950 the manufacture of products accounted for 14% of GDP.

In the 1950s, up to 70% of consumer goods were manufactured in the city. The port of Callao is one of the main commercial ports in South America, is used as a point of entry and exit of 75% of imports and 25% of exports. The main exports are oil, steel, silver, zinc, cotton, sugar and coffee.

Lima concentrates most of the economic activity: 57% industry, 62% trade, 46% of the labor force and 53% of GDP. In 2007, the Peruvian economy grew 9%, the highest growth rate in all of South America. The Stock Exchange grew 185.24% in 2006, and grew 168.3% in 2007, making it one of the stock market fastest growing in the world.

In 2006, the Lima Stock Exchange was the most profitable in the world. The unemployment rate in the metropolitan area is 7.2%. The Peruvian capital is also the headquarters of the major banks.

 

Gastronomy

 

The kitchen lime is the product of the fusion of culinary traditions of ancient Peru with the Spanish cuisine in the variant most strongly influenced by the Moorish presence in the Iberian Peninsula and with important contributions of the culinary customs brought from the Atlantic coast of Africa by sub-Saharan slaves. Thereafter, the mixing was influenced by the culinary uses and customs of French chefs who fled the revolution in their country to settle in number, in the capital of the Viceroyalty of Peru.

Equally crucial was the influence of immigration of the nineteenth century, which included Cantonese Chinese, Japanese and Italian, among other mainly European origins, and a strong internal flow from rural areas to cities, in particular in the second half Lima the twentieth century. The city also has a wide variety of Creole restaurants, chifas, cebicherías and pollerías

Typical dishes

Cebiche


 

The basic preparation consists of fresh fish filet cut into pieces and cooked in lemon. In it, the pepper and onion chips adds. The garrison that accompanies it is depending on location and the region. It can be a boiled potato or boiled potato.

La carapulcra

It is the oldest mestizo saucer, is an indigenous stew prepared with dried potato casserole style with pork and chicken, panca and mirasol chili, garlic and other spices.

La humita


It is the clearest antecedent of the tamale. Still it consumed. And a lot. It is the mass of fresh corn and make sweet and savory. The wrap themselves in corn leaves and water. A sweet raisins added to them. And the salt will be placed little cheese or chicken in the center.

Anticuchos


It is the clearest antecedent of the tamale. Still it consumed. And a lot. It is the mass of fresh corn and make sweet and savory. The wrap themselves in corn leaves and water. A sweet raisins added to them. And the salt will be placed little cheese or chicken in the center.

Causa rellena


Pasta yellow potatoes seasoned with red pepper, stuffed with tuna. It can also be filled with chicken. And in some restaurants of the first level the present with crabmeat.


Lugares de interés

Zoo Huachipa


Is a beautiful natural shelter, considered as a space fighting for the preservation of the environment. It provides care and protection of the flora, fauna and other natural resources. It seeks to contribute to raising awareness and creating ecological awareness in the population.

Park Zonal Huáscar


The second largest lime zonal Park, has a number of components that guarantee visitors a day full of fun and relaxing close to nature.

El Campo de Marte


Campo de Marte de Lima or Plaza of the revolution, is a large park located in the District of Jesús María, Lima, the capital of the Peru. To its around are located public institutions, sports organizations, political scenario and headquarters of the military stop great sometimes.

National Museum of Peruvian Culture


Founded in 1946, building facade inspired by the Tiahuanaco culture. Exhibition of pieces of folk art of Peru, Amazon and folk Ethnology; fabrics, ceramics, musical instruments, saddlery, imagery, etc.

Art Museum


It is located on the Palacio of the exhibition, which was built in 1872 with plans of Gustave Eiffel. The Museum is located here since 1961. Made up of pieces donated and legacy individuals. It exhibits collections that show the Peru art from prehistory and the first human traces to contemporary art; collections of ceramics and textiles of pre-Hispanic cultures.

Metropolitan Museum of Lima


This museum aims to show visitors the soul of the city and its 10 thousand year history, projecting the future, through the use of audiovisual technology for virtual content development; achieving in this way that visitors can witness historical events known only through history books.